Under most time charter parties, the supply of bunkers is the responsibility of Charterers. Bunkers will usually become Charterers’ property upon delivery of the ship until they are purchased back by Owners upon redelivery.
In the 1970s and 1980s there were a large number of claims arising from claimed shortages said to have been due to excess retentions on vessels. After various investigations into the causes of these “losses”, improved measurement techniques, procedures and equipment were introduced.
Since the introduction of steel-hulled vessels around 120 years ago, water has been used as ballast to stabilize vessels at sea. Ballast water is pumped in to maintain safe operating conditions throughout a voyage.
On container ships, cargo is carried in standardized containers, which are placed one over the other and secured using lashing. While at sea, the ship is subjected to heavy rolling and pitching, which can not only disturb the cargo but also upset the stability of the ship.
To understand the effects of rogue or freak waves on ships at sea, it is vital to first develop an understanding of rogue waves in itself, the occurrence of such a phenomenon and the reason behind such an occurrence. The occurrence of sea waves is an uncertain phenomenon. That is, if you consider a certain […]
Charter parties, which do not contain an express warranty as to safety Where a charterparty specifically names the loading port or berth and contains no warranty as to safety, no warranty as to the safety of the port or berth can be implied into the charterparty. In such circumstances, the owners are treated as having […]
Asian gypsy moth (AGM) is a serious pest that can be carried on ships and cargo. AGM populations are prevalent in some seaport areas in Far East Russia, Japan, Korea, and China. If introduced, AGM would pose a significant risk to the North American plant resource base, businesses that rely on plant resources, and to […]
The English High Court has issued useful guidance for underperformance disputes, which are commonplace these days under time charters for dry bulk carrier vessels. The background facts The vessel was trip time chartered under the NYPE form and performed a ballast voyage (at two different ordered speeds, during two legs) from China to Canada and […]
Ideally, a passenger wishing to fly from one city to another would prefer to have a direct flight. However, this is not commonly the case unless one is using the largest airports in the world such as London, Paris. New York, Hong Kong or Dubai. Even from these airports, direct flights to a wide range […]
Container flows are quite representative of global trade imbalances, which have steadily been growing since the mid 1990s. For instance, there are 1.96 times as much containers moving from Asia to the United States (14.7 million TEUs in 2014) than vice-versa (7.5 million TEU), meaning that the equivalent of 7.2 million TEUs had to be […]